When designing or planning an infrastructure, among the initial plans that must be thought about early on in the process is the type of foundation to be used to ensure rigidity and stability of the building. As an integral part of the structure, foundation is responsible for making sure the building stands upright, which technically means it brings the weight of most of the structure to the ground where it is erected. That ground is known as the foundation bed. There is actually not a single type of foundations, and we laid out the main categories for deep foundations.
This is among the most common types of deep foundation, piling is actually recommended for deeper grounds, with any nearby bodies of water like river beds or there are existing irrigation or water systems deep down such as canals. This is also used for loads that are extremely heavy and concentrated. Basically, pile foundations are designed for grounds where the surface layers cannot carry heavy, sudden loads, such as soils with poor conditions. These foundations are also preferred by many construction sites due to its cheaper cost. One popular pile foundation being used in larger construction, and only recently for modern residentials, is screw pile. Screw piles are actually cylinders with helices, much like the sides you see on a screw, so they can cut through the ground as they penetrate the soil. For further information about screw piles installation please see page.
Under the deep foundations category is pier foundation, which is shallower compared to screw piling, and is also commonly referred to as “post foundation.” The concept for this is that a bigger foundation is supported by several piles of columns below. There is a pile cap above the piles, where the pier, or the largest column, stands. The advantage of using such is it only requires readily availble materials so manufacture and assembly is not as difficult. Another thing about pier foundation is that it is usually varied, and can then be modified to make the structure more pleasing and aesthetic.
For extreme lateral loads, caisson foundation is the solution. It is also commonly used for foundation that are located on water or underwater like rivers. The main reason of caisson foundation is to be able to float in a particular area before it is fixed in place, which is why it is derived literally from French meaning large box. Their design is to keep the structure dry by having a setup where water can be pumped out. Applications include dams and bridge piers.Deep foundations are classified into three, the abovementioned, which are pile foundation, pier foundation, and cassion foundation. It is very important to be familiar with the distinction of each, and how they are different to each other, prior to the construction of any structure.